Voice Over Internet Protocol - Voice Through Post Cards

Many contend that the Voice over Internet Protocol or VoIP is one of the greatest innovations to human communication. For such a strong claim, one can be lead to ask, why is this so? How is the VoIP different from the invention of the telephone, which also broke the impossibility of slow inefficient communication over a great distance? Well, to understand this, one must understand how VoIP works.

How Does VoIP Work?

As the name suggests, VoIP is voice sent over the Internet. The secret to its success lies in VoIP's capability to send voice in packets. As Vint Cerf, more commonly referred to as the Father of the Internet, put it, packets can be thought of as postal cards sent over the mail. Each card contains limited information that needs the other cards to display the full message-a piece of the puzzle. Once received and assembled the postal cards may reveal the full message as opposed to one long letter.

Before this can happen though, several steps must take place.

First, audio must be sampled through the computer. Sampling is a process that records and stores a tiny bit of audio. In VoIP though, instead of being stored in the computer, the bits and pieces of audio are sent over the IP network. Overall, these audio bits get converted back into whatever type is compatible with the receiver's instrument-be it another computer or a telephone-so the receiver may be able to listen to the full and complete recording.

However, before the audio gets sent to the other end of the line, it needs to be compressed to be able to travel more smoothly over the Internet. Compressing the audio will have them require less space so it can be transmitted faster over the IP network. The main process of compressing audio is via CODEC (compressor/decompressor). Many CODECs are available for VoIP as well as for other multimedia files like video or photos. Basically, CODECs reduce the bandwidth of these files for easier transmission. When the audio bits are compressed, they are then gathered to form larger chunks and placed into data packets ready to be sent. A standard IP packet contains more or less 10 milliseconds worth of audio.

The final step for VoIP to work now involves the other end of the communicating parties. Once the IP packets have been sent, the receiving end must be able to read the digital audio bits, otherwise, using the VoIP for communicating would have been useless.

There are two ways to make this possible. It depends on the receiving users though, if they are receiving the IP packets through an analog technology (telephone, cellphone, etc.) or digital (also through the Internet). There is no problem if they receive it digitally, because then, it can automatically be read. This is how Skype works.

However, for analog technology users, they must possess a converter that converts the digital data to a signal that can be read by the analog device.

VoIP - Digital Post Cards

Several people have argued the relevance of the Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology and consider it as the best communication option there is. But how can they make such statement? What distinct edge does it give which is absent in the traditional telephone system? To help identify with those people, it is but imperative to first know how the innovated technology works.

Voice over IP is simply conversation (or voice transmission) via the internet. What's uniquely good and beneficial in VoIP is its capability to send voice in packets, which are like postal cards sent through the mail, as how the Father of Internet Vint Cerf describes it. They are like a puzzle where each postal card carries limited information and requires the other cards for the full message to be assembled and completed, producing one long note which is the complete picture. However, before having the complete puzzle of message, a number of steps are required.

Sampling of audio must first be done via the computer. This is a process of recording and then storing the tiny piece/s of audio. But in VoIP, the audio pieces are sent over the IP network instead of storing them in the computer. Upon receipt on the other end of the line, the audio pieces are converted into a compatible format for the recipient's device which may be another computer or a telephone, so that the receiver may be able to get and listen to the complete recording.

Take note that before the audio pieces are sent to the other end, it should be compressed to lessen the required space for the file. This would promote a smooth, fast and uninterrupted transport over the IP network or web. Compressing audio files is done through a compressor/decompressor (CODEC). Simply put, the CODEC's are there to minimize and decrease the bandwidth of files, then gather and combine them to form full bigger chunks and eventually squeeze them into data packets, hence, a better transmission. Typical IP packets contain about 10 milliseconds worth of audio each. Numerous CODEC's are accessible which can be used not only for VoIP, but also for videos, photos and other multimedia files.

Finally, VoIP can only be successful with the cooperation of the other end of the line. The receiving party should of course be able to receive and read the sent digital audio pieces in the IP packets; otherwise, communication via VoIP becomes useless and futile.

Two means may be executed to make the above possible and successful, but it would be dependent on the user's receiving device. If they are receiving the IP packets digitally (includes the internet), just like Skype, the files may automatically be read. However, if the data are obtained through an analog technology (e.g. telephone, cellphone), there must exist a converter to convert the digital files to a signal readable by the analog device of the user.

So, are you convinced that the Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology is the best human innovation ever?

Don't File Bankruptcy! - How to Avoid Filing Bankruptcy While Still Eliminating 70% of Your Debt

It is really not easy to think patiently and firmly when in trouble, especially under debt. The monetary problems have a realm beyond its own; it impacts not only your financial domain but strains everything around, your family, your social circle, your work. Once all of them come under this pressure, the stress does not let you think right. Still, refrain from bankruptcy; it is more of an emotional decision from heart than a financial decision from head. So what are the other options to handle your debt? Well, negotiation is the key word and your savior.

If you are clear even with the basics of finance, call up your credit card company and try to negotiate on your debt. Make sure you talk to someone of authority instead of just a customer representative and explain your financial condition. They might be willing to waive off the outstanding balance and lower the APR. How would you feel eliminating your debt paying only $4000 for a sum of $10000? That really happens and if you do not believe my words, start browsing on internet and search for words/phrases like debt settlement, debt relief, eliminate debt etc. You will find hundreds of sites offering debt relief network and solutions, read the reviews posted by their customers.

There are several debt settlement companies with all details available online. You might have to answer some of their questions like below, before they proceed on debt counseling.How much unsecured debt do you owe
How many credit cards do you own total financial asset.How much you think you will be able to pay for the unsecured debt.How long would you need to pay?

Typically the debt settlement companies would advise you to stop paying credit card bill for the next three or six months to accumulate enough for debt negotiation. They would try to consolidate your debt if it is from multiple credit card companies to make a better deal for negotiation. This time is utilized to explain your financial condition, and the money to pay the debt. The debt settlement companies negotiate with the credit card companies on your behalf to get a waiver up to 70 percent.

Once the creditors agree and sign off the negotiation, you can pay that amount and get out of debt in two to three years. So you can very well see that debt settlement not only helped you avoid bankruptcy but helped you pay lot less, in a single payment (instead of paying to several credit card companies separately), less APR and in a time period of just 2-3 years. Had you been paying the minimum amount of the debt, it might have taken 30 years or so. Do not waste any more time, as this offer may be temporary, get rid off your debt as soon as possible.

Photo Recovery Post "Card Is Not Formatted" Error

As digital cameras and camcorders are getting popular, so is the use of digital memory cards. In this scenario, card errors without a doubt prove to be most frustrating aspects of owning precious memories. Whether you happen to be a professional photographer or an amateur, card errors have knock-on effect on your worth keeping memories.

An example of such errors is "Card is not formatted. Do you want to format it now?" To be somewhat particular, this error occurs when you insert the card in the camera and it refuses to read the card. Of course, if you click yes to format the card, the entire data will go off the records. Given the fact that digital camera doesn't recognize the card in such situations, this happens particularly when the file system of memory card is corrupted. To be able to fix the issue, you must know some Photo Recovery fixes.

Reasons of Memory Card Corruption

• Capturing images using a camera that is low on batteries
• Subjecting the card to unfavorable conditions
• Removing the card while a read/write operation
• Deleting, editing, moving, or renaming the digital files on the card while its contents are still being used on the computer
• Using the memory card in different cameras without actually formatting in the earlier one

Things to Try

Try reading the problematic card with another device or card reader. If it doesn't work, the problem is certainly the corrupted memory card.

In such situations, we suggest you to stop using the card immediately and try using a Photo Recovery Software.

Photo Recovery Information

These utilities are meant to recover all sort of multimedia information from variety of storage devices, including but not limited to memory cards. Photo Recovery utilities are capable to recover all video, sound, and image files that you hope to recover. Plus, their pleasing and easy to navigate interface give an added advantage.

Start Out The New Year By Filing For Bankruptcy

As we usher in 2012, the bad financial decisions we made in 2011 will quickly become a lingering memory. Looking back to New Year's one year ago, I remember all the talk of how people were going to get out of debt for their New Year's resolution. One year later, it seems nothing has changed and according to the statistics Americans are going the wrong way. Credit card debt is now at an alarming $15,799 per American. With only 300 million people living in the United States it blows me away to learn that there are over 609 million credit cards held by US consumers. Considering age and ability to pay this would factor down to six credit cards being held per American. Over the last years, all the talk about getting the US debt under control and the US consumers, that control just went out the window. With these new numbers it's obvious that the US is going to see record numbers of Americans filing for bankruptcy. Since the changes to the bankruptcy code back in 2005, at first we saw a drop as expected and from 2006 on the numbers of those filing bankruptcy has continuously risen until 2011 where it went flat. This last year has perplexed many experts because the numbers say bankruptcy filing and yet we will probably finish out the year with 1.5 million bankruptcies filed, a little lower than 2010.

The common consensus from experts and bankruptcy attorneys across the US is this is the calm before the storm. After speaking with a bankruptcy attorney, they informed me of how many people came into their office and were too broke to file for bankruptcy. Now that's being broke. When you factor in all the costs, filing bankruptcy is really not that expensive. The average fee for a bankruptcy attorney to file Chapter 7 is about $1500. Add in the costs of the pre-bankruptcy counseling course and the post-bankruptcy financial management course along with the bankruptcy court fees and individual filing can plan on spending approximately $2000 for the entire procedure. Looking back at the amount of credit card debt the average American has currently, $2000 is really quite a value to wipe this out with no questions asked.

Since the New Year is upon us, what could be better than filing for bankruptcy and starting out the year being virtually debt-free from credit card debt. Why carry on another year kicking the can down the road making minimum payments and never chopping away at the balance due. This is how most Americans have been living since the downturn in the economy. With no good economic news in the future, it's time for people to cut their losses and protect what assets they have left. The banks had no problem taking a bailout from the taxpayers. Consider filing for bankruptcy as your 2012 New Year's bailout package to get you back on your feet. Don't let creditors make you feel bad about not being able to pay your bills. Most debt collectors get paid on the amount they collect and are not doing you any favors. By taking food off your kids table they pad their wallets with large commissions. Stop the craziness and start out fresh by filing bankruptcy in 2012.

Is Bankruptcy the Way to Go For Me?

Many people scowl at the thought that they might have to file for bankruptcy shelter. We tend to associate bankruptcy with those people who just spend without thinking and purchasing excessive unneeded things. Then there is the inevitable result which is the damage inflicted on the credit report after you have filed for bankruptcy. Just because bankruptcy can affect your credit score, it does not mean that you should deflect bankruptcy if your financial position warrants it. Filing for bankruptcy shelter is your legal right, and under the right circumstances, you should surely take advantage of it. Under what financial situation should you seek bankruptcy shelter?

It will be nice if there is a certain rule that dictates when you can or should file for bankruptcy shelter. You can choose to apply bankruptcy at your own discretion and depending on your personal life at the time. If you can survive the next 3-5 years without filing for bankruptcy, then bankruptcy is most likely not for you.

Can you live a profound life in the next 3-5 years and still pay back the creditors?

If you can pay back your creditors within 3-5 years and still afford to pay your typical expenses such as food, shelter, car payment, then you should take the route to pay down your debt. If you have give up on the necessities in life, like food and shelter, in order to pay back your creditors in 5-10 years, then you should consider filing for bankruptcy.

This whole idea can be better explained with a concrete number demonstration. Hypothetically you have accumulated over $50,000 in credit card debt. Credit card companies always charge some kind of interest for lending the money to you upfront. In our example, the credit card charges an interest charge of 20% APR. Given this data, we can presume that you are paying back $500 per month and that will help you to pay off the credit card debt in 8+ years. If there is no way for you to part with $500 per month for the next 8+ years, then this is the time that you should think about bankruptcy. In this scenario where it is next to impossible to pay back the debt, and your alternative is to apply for bankruptcy protection, then you should save the $500 per month that you were planning to pay back the creditors for future use. Do not hesitate to seek help with bankruptcy just because you worry about your credit history. Currently your credit history is already not the most ideal, so why not take benefit of it and start anew with totally no debt under your belt?

Do not let the thought that your credit history will be ruined deter you from filing bankruptcy. It is altogether possible to have even better credit score post bankruptcy if you stick to a right plan to help you reestablish your credit. If you abide by the rules of debt management properly, you can emphatically reestablish your credit score back up to high 600s or low 700s post bankruptcy. Lenders are forgiving to their clients' plight, and as an example, you can even qualify for a FHA home loan 30 months after you have filed for bankruptcy. Filing for bankruptcy is not the end of the world for you, it is just the beginning. If your finances are in a bad shape and you need assistance filing bankruptcy, your best option is to talk to a bankruptcy attorney. Just because you have made mistakes in the past does not mean you will continue to do the same thing over and over again. Apply for bankruptcy if you need to, and make sure you will become financially responsible for the rest of your life.

Chapter 7 Bankruptcy Filing Gets You Out of Debt Troubles

Bankruptcy is not debtor's prison, you can survive and you can come out of it better. It can be the light at the end of the tunnel. If you just can't deal with the financial stress, and your budget just won't stretch, then don't let fear, shame, or pride stand in your way.

It's important to remember that it was created as a way for people to find relief from creditor problems that are overwhelming them. It allows you to start over from scratch without burdensome debt, and with some assets to minimize the risk of your being bankrupt again. Erasing debts through a bankruptcy can be a very humbling experience but when you get through it you will have the weight of the world lifted off of you, giving you the fresh start you desperately need.

Chapter 7 bankruptcy filing allows you to discharge or get rid of all of your unsecured debts and keep most, if not all of your possessions including your car and your home. Unsecured debts are credit cards, store charge cards, gas credit cards, payday loans, personal loans, debts from repossessed property, utility bills, cell phone bills, and medical bills. In some cases, you will be able to get rid of old income tax debts and property tax debts.

In Chapter 7 bankruptcy the majority of your assets are liquidated to satisfy part or all of the debts you owe. There are exemptions to the assets that can be seized, but these exemptions are extremely limited; therefore, Chapter 7 is the preferred type of personal bankruptcy when you own no assets of immense value, such as a home, that you cannot afford to lose. Since it is the closest thing to a fresh start, however, many people choose it as a viable option when their debt load becomes too heavy to carry.

The Court's enforcement of the education requirements of the new bankruptcy law are starting to affect many unwary and procrastinating debtors. Most debtors are diligent in completing the pre-filing education course. Many of these same debtors, however, are forgetting that they need a post bankruptcy filing course certificate after they file bankruptcy in order to have their debts discharged.

This is all for a reason and it is that your bankruptcy filing will remain on your credit records for 10 years. During this time, banks and lenders will see this filing every time you apply for a personal, student, car or home loan. Some banks will choose not to lend you money. Others will charge you higher interest rates. You might also struggle to obtain new credit cards. In general, having a personal bankruptcy on your record makes borrowing money, and using credit, a hassle. Therefore the above mentioned course could get the debtors guidance for how to deal with the post filing financial issues.

After A Bankruptcy Filing And Already Getting Credit Card Offers

One of the hardest things for an individual filing for bankruptcy is to give up their credit cards. A common question that many people ask their bankruptcy attorney when filing is, can I keep one of my credit cards as long as I can continue paying on it? It's pretty crazy to even ask that. Isn't that what got them in all their trouble anyway? People don't understand how they will be able to survive without credit. I remember when I was a kid my parents used to save for household items like a TV. It wasn't till the 70's when plastic became popular. This idea that you could have it now and pay for it later, when you really think about it is pretty stupid. In most cases, by the time you pay it off the item is worthless and you probably aren't even using it anymore. Thinking about it that way, if you had saved the money to buy the item, you might change your mind and not bought it because it was not as important as you thought it would be. Most purchases that are made by credit cards are impulsive.

After a person files for bankruptcy, notices are sent out from the court to a list of all the debtor's creditors. That's why the bankruptcy attorney takes the time to create a creditor matrix that is filed with the bankruptcy petition. This is the list the bankruptcy court uses to do the mailing. Once all the creditors are notified, in most cases, they close the accounts. First of all, the debtor shouldn't be charging anything if they're in the process of filing bankruptcy. That gets back to the point, even if the debtor wanted to try and keep a credit card it wouldn't matter because they would close the account anyway.

In a Chapter 7 bankruptcy, the debtor will usually get their discharge about 4 to 6 months after the filing. With a Chapter 13 bankruptcy, the debtor will need to complete a 3 to 5 year payment plan before the court will give them their discharge. Another question that a bankruptcy attorney hears quite frequently is, how long after my bankruptcy discharge will I be able to get another credit card? Once again, it's almost like the debtors just don't get it. Credit is what ruined their life and it's the first thing they worry about getting again.

Lately, many people post bankruptcy filing had been telling stories of how they are getting preapproved credit card offers in the mail. This person has just gone through a bankruptcy and the letter will say your credit is in good standing and you are qualified for a new credit card. That's totally a surprise because usually most debtor's post bankruptcy filing get bombarded with secured credit card offers immediately after the discharge. It makes you wonder if they didn't know about the bankruptcy or do they not care. The creditors do know that after a Chapter 7 bankruptcy most debtors are debt free or almost debt-free with just an automobile loan or a mortgage.

Those two items almost really don't count because they're necessary to live. They also know that this person can't file bankruptcy again for eight years. This gives them pretty good odds that they will be able to be paid. Many of these offers have extremely high fees and interest rates, so the debtor should be very careful before signing on the dotted line. After going through the stress of filing bankruptcy at debtor should be wary of getting into debt quickly again and should consult their bankruptcy attorney before deciding to do so.

Organize Social Media Accounts - The Only Tip You Will Ever Need!

Get Organized. The only TIP you'll ever need! Easily organize social media accounts with an index card system. Whether you manage your own accounts or have a multitude of clients you manage for, this is an excellent and inexpensive way to make yourself more efficient.

You can purchase the following four items at an office supply store or online for under $10.

The first item you'll need is a storage file. The index card file I illustrate in my diagram is a standard black plastic card file that snaps shut. It stores and organizes cards, plus holds cards upright for hands-free viewing and costs only $2. On the other hand, you can get as fancy as you want as there are various styles available, such as a locking card file that will cost you around $11.00.

Subsequently you'll need color coded tab sets. The ones I found are lettered A to Z however, you can flip them around and the back of the tabs are blank. You can easily write on the tabs with a permanent marker. I use these tabs to specify Monday, Tuesday, etc.

The 3rd item is a pack of index cards made of a durable card stock and ruled on one side. I use these for everything including note taking at meetings and seminars. They are a good deal easier to sort through than a random notebook. I always keep some cards with me just in case and men can carry these cards easily in their shirt pocket.

Lastly you need color coded index cards, which you will use as a title card for each social media site or task such as; reading email, updating blog, writing an article.

Let's get started by creating a weekly spreadsheet in Microsoft Word (or similar) or on a piece of paper. Dedicate your tasks according to a time of day and how long each task will take. For instance, the first thing I do each morning is read my favorite online news sources and a few Social Media News sites. I allow about one half hour for this from 8 am to 8:30 am. I have discovered this keeps me on task and I don't get sidetracked. The next thing I do is open my three email accounts. Of course I receive email throughout the day also but I always make a point to check it first thing in the morning and allow myself plenty of time to follow up.

When you have completed the spreadsheet, transfer those tasks one at a time on to the index cards. Please note: If you edit your Facebook page five times a week you should make five index cards and file them behind each daily tab. When I first started using this system I tried getting around this by making one card and moving it from day to day, but that was not a successful method for me. It's much easier to flip to Tuesday and have the cards already in place. Here is an example of what I have written on one of my index cards: (9:30 am) 1. Reply to comments 2. Post status updates (9:45 am) 3. Reply to comments on client pages 2. Post status updates. I go down the list and stay on task always making sure I don't run over the time allocated. Then I flip to the next card.

SEVEN ADDITIONAL WAYS TO USE THE INDEX CARD SYSTEM: What I have found to be a wonderful thing is the usefulness of this system for more than the daily task function. I also have sections to organize other things I'd normally have to memorize or keep on a notepad such as:

1. Useful websites. Bookmarking websites is fine and I do this often but sometimes I've forgotten why I have a site bookmarked or I fail to remember it completely. I have so many social media sites that I like to keep nearby.

2. Passwords. I do have most of them fixed in my memory or saved online however, some of my passwords are real doozies and those are the ones I need to have written in ink and locked away in a convenient place.

3. Notes. I attend seminars and meetings with a neat stack of index cards in my purse (guys can carry these in their shirt pockets). When I get back to my office I go through the cards and file according to subject or toss.

4. To Do ASAP. I try to take care of this list within the week.

5. Future projects. I know we'll all have some time to get around to this one day.

6. Ideas. Another reason to carry cards with you.

7. Client files. I like to keep certain notes on my clients, sometimes a time card and a to-do list for their future needs.

What Are the Rules For Filing Bankruptcy Again?

For some families, filing bankruptcy again is an option. However, many see it as a permanent solution to any and all debt problems. Is that really how it should be treated?

While bankruptcy can provide you with a fresh start, filing again may not be as easy as you think. The events that create a need for bankruptcy often aren't anything we want to experience again. How would it feel to start receiving those harassing creditor calls again? What about a wage garnishment? It would be in you and your family's best interest to avoid revisiting those circumstances again. It isn't just the circumstances that make it difficult, there are also periods of time required before you file again. If you successfully file a Missouri or Illinois Chapter 7 in the past 8 years, you won't be able to file another Chapter 7. As for Chapter 13, the benefits you received from an original bankruptcy filing may affect what benefits you may receive from filing bankruptcy again. (It is important to keep in mind that every situation is different and, if you aren't sure if you can file again, it would be best to take advantage of a free consultation from a reputable bankruptcy attorney.)

This is not to say that filing again is impossible, in fact, sometimes it is necessary. Events happen that are outside our control and bankruptcy is a wonderful tool that has helped many people become the successes they always wanted to be. It helps families in overwhelming amounts of debt get protection from foreclosure, find a solution to credit card debt, and finally get relief from the harassment of their creditors. If at all possible, I would be determined to file only once for bankruptcy protection.

What can you do to keep from filing bankruptcy again? Being by picking a really great St. Louis bankruptcy attorney. The best attorney cares what happens to you before, during, and after your bankruptcy and could provide you with information that may make it easier to have a successful post-bankruptcy life. Also, keep careful track of your pocketbook. If you've got to make a different budget, resist impulsive buying decisions, and work hard to stick to your new lifestyle, do it.

Remember, a St. Louis bankruptcy attorney can get you to a fresh start but it is up to you to make it work for you. Get the right information, make the right choices, and start living the life you always wanted to live.